The Christian tradition’s best minds concluded that evil has no existence in and of itself.
Contrary to supernatural-themed horror films and “folk theology”, there is no substance called evil that exists anywhere in the universe, corrupting people and causing bad things to happen.
Instead evil is defined as privation or absence of the good, in the same way that darkness is simply the absence of light and cold the absence of heat.
In broad strokes, consider what happened in Genesis:
God created everything, and at each stage saw that it was good. So we have the creator, the ultimate authority, giving each aspect of creation the stamp of approval.
We have God observing Adam and saying “it is not good for the man to be alone”, which is the first instance of something “not good” in creation. Note that God didn’t create the “not good” directly; it is presented as a foreseeable but unintended outcome of good actions, and is soon remedied by the creation of Eve.
So everything is good, and the only “not good” is immediately remedied by God, and everything is good again.
God is love
The significance of everything being good is made apparent when we find out much, much later that God is love. The New Testament reveals that the nature of God is love itself, and God’s love for humanity is expressed in His desire to give us good things, the greatest good being communion with God in love.
Hence “But strive first for the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.”
The problem of evil
The problem is that despite the assurance of an all-powerful all-loving God, our experience of life contains many things that are not good.
Reading the news and talking to others, we hear about things that are even worse than “not good”, things that are tragic, horrific, and evil.
There may even be things in our own experience we can categorise as evil. But more broadly, anything “not good” comes under that category. As in Buddhism, life itself can seem “unsatisfactory” even if we achieve our goals and satisfy our desires.
The promise of mysticism
Mystics from different religious systems promise that we can experience true love, joy, or bliss in this lifetime. Various saints and mystics have said that they experience great love and joy despite the apparent suffering and evil in life.
They say we can experience this transcendent love, joy, bliss, peace, and so on, because it is the very nature of God, and God is, ultimately, all that exists.
The mystics grapple with paradox in trying to convey their answer to the problem of evil: if God is all-powerful and all-loving, why does he permit evil to exist?
For a mystic, the question has a slightly different angle: if God is love, and God is all, how can there be anything other than love in my experience?
This problem arises in every system of mysticism.
Troubleshooting my own experience
The fundamental question is not theological but pragmatic: why is my experience anything less than the love and joy described by the mystics?
But the pragmatic question is also theological: how is it possible for there to be anything but love and joy in my experience?
The Christian remedy is to love and know God. Non-Christian mysticism echoes the same, with varying emphasis on love or knowledge of the ultimate reality.
But this answer is not complete, because there remains in me something that resists or fails to embrace love and knowledge of God to the necessary degree.
A two-fold problem
So here it is: I need to know pragmatically why I am unable to fully and consistently embrace love and knowledge of God to such an extent that my experience is characterised by perfect love and complete joy.
At the same time this brings us back to the theological problem of how anything other than love and joy could exist in the first place. In other words, the problem of evil.
This is not just a Christian problem. Non-dualist systems like Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta struggle with the same fundamental issue. They posit that the nature of reality is non-dual – that the sense of separation between ourselves and God or the ultimate reality is false. But how does this sense of separation arise in the first place? What sustains it? How can “ignorance” or “nescience” or “delusion” exist if there is nothing but God?
Back to a Christian context: if God made everything good, why do human beings suffer?
I’m skirting around a whole lot of theology here, not because I want to avoid it, but because it faces the same problem from a different angle and I’d prefer to steer clear of the free will debate for now.
Knowledge of good and evil
The answer lies in the very mysterious tree of knowledge of good and evil.
Adam is commanded not to eat of the tree. The serpent tells Eve that if she eats of it she will become like God. God subsequently reiterates that implication…”The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil.”
But as we saw at the beginning of this post, evil has no positive existence. Evil is the absence of good. Everything in existence up to that point was good, because God himself created it.
So what evil is there to know? We might think this means “evil things” or “evil options” as if the tree gave Adam and Eve the ability to make malicious moral choices.
But in a universe where only good things existed and where an all-loving God is all-powerful, evil could only have theoretical significance.
Questions that should not be asked/how to ‘break’ a perfect machine
My old boss once told me that when he was at university the department still had old mechanical calculators. Apparently if you divide by zero on a mechanical calculator, it goes into an endless loop of calculation and has to be unplugged or switched off to stop it.
There’s nothing wrong with the machine. It isn’t broken. It’s not technically a design flaw. It’s just that when presented with the absurd or impossible command to divide by zero, the machine goes nuts.
But even thought it’s stuck, the machine is still not broken. If you could find a way to stop that calculation, it would be back to normal.
I think this provides an apt analogy for the knowledge of evil in the human mind. Evil is the absence of good, yet it takes on positive significance in our minds.
What I think happened, what Genesis signifies, is that in the fullness of love and communion with God, Adam and Eve entertained the idea of God’s opposite – God’s absence – and the corresponding absence of love, of goodness, of joy.
Maybe God is capable of knowing his absence, but human beings are not God. We aren’t (obviously) sustained by our own nature, but depend instead on God for our existence. God cannot help but be God, but humans could cease to exist at any moment.
An absurd idea
The idea of evil is absurd.
Yet when we entertain this absurd idea, our peace and joy are shattered, our love falters, and like the machine, we go a little nuts.
Our suffering in life, our failure to embrace love and knowledge of God, is due to entertaining this absurd idea: the idea of not-love.
If you spend enough time examining your own psyche, you will find that all fear and sorrow stems from this idea that the love and joy we desire are or will become absent. At the most basic level we are all afraid of the deprivation of love – the idea of “not-love” as a real or potential threat to our happiness and our existence.
In this sense, the more conventional Christian narrative still holds true: our faith in God is insufficient, because we continue to entertain the possibility that his love is not enough, will not come through for us.
We continue, despite the promises of the Gospel, to fear the spectre of God’s absence or insufficiency.
We’re like a young child secretly worried that his parents will abandon him. And as parents we think we should be able to reassure the child that this will never happen; yet the child himself must see that his own fear is not an unlikely or improbable outcome, but an absurdity, a mistaken conclusion that entirely missed the mark.
Light and shadow
God is often described as light. Evil is appropriately compared to darkness.
In this context, our fundamental error is akin to turning your back on the source of the light, and being terrified by your own shadow.
The shadow has no positive existence in the light. It doesn’t even exist. Yet if we mistake it for a real substance, we might imagine it could swallow us whole and we would never see the light again.
But as John wrote: “God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.”
The answer therefore is to recognise the absurdity of the idea of God’s absence. God himself could never doubt his existence or his power or his love, and so for us the corresponding answer is faith in love while refusing to entertain the idea of “not-love”.
In practice this means that any negative emotion such as fear, sorrow, anger, and so on, must have the delusion of “not-love” at its core. You might feel hurt that someone ignores or neglects you, but this hurt only has power because of your belief in “not-love”.
You might be angry at some perceived injustice to you, but this anger, and the fear and sorrow behind it can ultimately be traced back to this belief in the idea of “not-love”.
If you ceased to entertain the idea of “not-love” then there would only be love remaining.
“God is love; whoever abides in love abides in God, and God in him.”